Analysis of existing work and studies lead to the observation that BIoT (Blockchain (BC) and Internet of Things (IoT) integration) faces various efficiency issues in IoT-to-BC adaption associated with (a) scalability, (b) energy efficiency, and (c) security. To solve these concerns, at the first step and via experimental analysis of multiple Distributed Applications (dApp), this paper and PhD thesis does identify key BIoT efficiency affecting metrics. In the second step, these metrics are used to design and evaluate an efficient BIoT architecture —termed as BIIT—. Extensive simulations conducted on IoT network proves that BIIT enhances the efficiency of IoT-to-BC communications even for a limiting IoT protocol such as LoRaWAN. As of the third, the design and evaluation of DLIT (Distributed Ledger (DL) for IoT daTa) is presented. DLIT offers a highly scalable and secure DL via a hybrid consensus mechanism, equipped with sharding, and IoT data modification possibilities.
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