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The Evolution Of Centralisation on Cryptocurrency Platforms

More than ten years ago the blockchain was acclaimed as the solution to overcome centralised trusted third parties for online payments. Through the years the crypto-movement changed and evolved, although decentralisation remained the core ideology and the necessary feature every new crypto-project should provide. In this paper we study the concept of centralisation in cryptocurrencies using a wide array of methodologies from the complex systems literature, on a comparative collection of blockchains, in order to define the many different levels a blockchain system may display (de-)centralisation and to question whether the present state of cryptocurrencies is, in a technological and economical sense, actually decentralised.